After the partition of India, India and Pakistan fought for the spring state of Jammu and Kashmir – India by the accession of the ruler to the country and Pakistan because of the majority Muslim population of the state. The first Kashmir war lasted more than a year when a ceasefire was agreed to by UN mediation. The two sides agreed on a ceasefire line. According to Lieutenant-General DS Hooda, who was the architect of The Indian Surgical Attacks on The Launch Pads for Terrorism in Occupied Pakistan (POK), the agreement has been „dead for a very long time.“ The statement was even made after Pakistan summoned the Indian Business Office Gaurav Ahluwalia and handed over Islamabad`s condemnation of alleged ceasefire violations by Indian troops on 14 September in Nikial and Jandrot LoC sectors. Pakistan claimed that Indian fire claimed the life of a civilian in the village of Balakot, near the LoC. Pakistan has asked India to allow UNMOGIP to investigate incidents of dismissal. 2017 was the worst year for the violation of the ceasefire between India and Pakistan since the 2003 agreement came into force. India has blamed Pakistan for 860 ceasefire violations along the Line of Control (LOC) and the labour border along Jammu-Sialkot, while Pakistan has blamed India for 1,300 violations of the ceasefire, which killed about 100 people in 2017 alone. Both sides claim that they are retributing themselves by making the other party responsible for breaking the ceasefire in an „un provoked“ manner, boasting that an „appropriate response“ has been given and that there has been, on the other hand, a higher number of deaths. Ceasefire violations along the LOC had become a routine activity during the Kashmir uprising in the 1990s. After the 2003 ceasefire agreement, they were almost stalled during the 2004-2007 peace process. However, ceasefire violations resumed in 2008, when the peace process derailed.

Official statistics from India and Pakistan indicate that 2017 was the worst year since the 2003 ceasefire, when violations surpassed the 2000 mark for the first time. These figures clearly indicate that the 2003 unwritten ceasefire is now over, and India and Pakistan are once again in the pre-2003 situation, when such violations were routine along the LOC. According to Professor Happymon Jacob, it was a miracle that the 2003 ceasefire survived for so long, even though he had not written anything officially between the two countries. Therefore, if the 2003 ceasefire is formalized with clear rules and regulations, demilitarized zones, neutral observers and joint commissions, it should reduce the likelihood of future ceasefire violations. But the success of ceasefires in most conflict situations depends heavily on political will. Unfortunately, this kind of political will seems to be totally lacking, because even gestures of goodwill, such as Kulbhushan Jadhav`s meeting with his family on Christmas Day, are lost in diplomatic sparrows and media wars. In addition, A.G. Noorani believes that a lasting and guaranteed formal ceasefire must be the first step in the peace pyramid, with confidence-building measures (CBM) expected to be the second and Kashmir/terrorism the last step towards peace between the two.